Magnetic and Electrical Alloys: Alloy 49 Carpenter 49® Carpenter High Permeability "49"® is a 48% nickel-iron alloy that possesses the highest saturation flux density of any nickel-iron alloy. The saturation flux density of about 16000 gauss (1.6 tesla) combined with high magnetic permeability and low core loss makes this a versatile alloy with many potential applications.  Carpenter High Permeability "49" alloy has been used in laminated cores for instrument transformers, magnetic shields and cores for certain electronic and communications devices in which extremely high permeability at low magnetizing forces greatly increases the efficiency and effectiveness of the equipment.  Because of its high permeability, it has also been used in solenoid cores and sensitive relays that must respond to low magnetizing forces.  Core Iron ASTM A848  Core Iron is often used in the manufacture of soft magnetic components where vacuum integrity is needed such as in power tubes and microwave devices. In addition, relays, solenoids, and magnetic pole pieces for scientific instruments may be made utilizing the qualities of Core Iron. HyMu80 HyMu 80 alloy is an unoriented, 80% nickel-iron-molybdenum alloy which offers extremely high initial permeability as well as maximum permeability with minimum hysteresis loss.  HyMu 80 alloy has been used primarily in transformer cores, tape wound toroids and laminations where compactness and weight factors are important. It has also been used for shielding to protect electrical components from stray magnetic fields. Hiperco50a Hiperco 50A alloy is a soft magnetic alloy which has been used primarily as magnetic core material in electrical core material in electrical equipment requiring high permeability values at very high magnetic flux densities.  The magnetic characteristics of this alloy permit weight reduction, reduction of copper turns, and insulation in the end product when compared to other magnetic alloys having lower permeabilities in the same magnetic field range. Invar 36 Invar 36 is a 36% nickel-iron alloy possessing a rate of thermal expansion approximately one-tenth that of carbon steel at temperatures up to 400°F(204°C)  This alloy has been used for applications where dimensional changes due to temperature variation must be minimized such as in radio and electronic devices, aircraft controls, optical and laser system, etc.  Invar 36 alloy has also been used in conjunction with high expansion alloys in applications where a motion is desired when the temperature changes, such as in bimetallic thermostats and in rod and tube assemblies for temperature regulators. Invar 42 Alloy 42 is a 41% nickel-iron controlled expansion alloy which has been used in a wide variety of glass-to- metal sealing applications.  While the expansion properties of this alloy most closely match 1075 glass, it has also been used in seals for the 0120 and 0010 glasses. It may also be used with hard glasses if a thin edged tubular seal is used. For seals that are not hydrogen annealed prior to sealing, a variation of this alloy containing small additions fo titanium, Glass Sealing 42 Gas-Free, has been used to promote gas-free sealing characteristics.  Alloy 42 has been used for the glass-to-metal seals in electronic tubes, automotive and industrial lamps, transformer and capacitor bushings and other glass-to-metal and ceramic-to-metal applications. Invar 32-5 Super Invar 32-5, a magnetic, austenitic, solid solution alloy containing iron, nickel, and cobalt, is designed to provide minimum thermal expansion at room temperatures. This alloy also exhibits austenite stability to service temperature at least -67°F and thermal expansion properties less than those of Invar 36 alloy (36% nickel-iron) when used in the -67/203& deg;F (-55/95°C) temperature range.  Applications for Super Invar 32-5 have included structural components for supports and substrates in optical and laser systems requiring precision measurements. This alloy has also used in wave guide tubes and other systems requiring metals in conjunction with low expansion glass/quartz assemblies. Kovar Kovar alloy is a vacuum melted, iron-nickel-cobalt, low expansion alloy whose chemical composition is controlled within narrow limits to assure precise uniform thermal expansion properties. Extensive quality controls are employed in the manufacture of this alloy to ensure uniform physical and mechanical properties for ease in deep drawing, stamping and machining.  Kovar alloy has been used for making hermetic seals with the harder Pyrex glasses and ceramic materials.  This alloy has found wide application in power tubes, microwave tubes, transistors and diodes. In intergrated circuits, it has been used for the flat pack and the dual- in-line package. High Temperature and Super Alloys A-286 Alloy A-286 has been used in jet engines, superchargers and various high temperature applications such as turbine wheels and blades, frames, casings, afterburner parts and fasteners. AM 350 Alloy 350 is a chromium-nickel-molybdenum stainless steel which can be hardnened by martensitic transformation and/or precipitation hardening. It has been used for gas turbine compressor components such as blades, discs, rotors, and shafts ,and similar parts where high strength was required at room and intermediate temperatures. Depending upon the heat treatment,alloy 350 may have an austenitic structure for best formability, or a martensitic structure with strengths comparable to those of martensitic steels. The alloy normally contains about 5 to 10% delta ferrite. The corrosion resistance of alloy 350 approaches that of the chromium-nickel austenitic stainless steel Alloy 901 A nickel-iron-chromium alloy containing titanium and aluminum for precipitation hardening and molybdenum for solid-solution strengthening. The alloy has high yield strength and creep resistance at temperatures to about 1110°F (600°C). A substantial iron content enables the alloy to combine high strength with good forging characteristics. Used in gas turbines for discs and shafts. Standard products form is round. Incoloy 800 Alloy 800 is an iron-nickel-chromium alloy with moderate strength and good resistance to oxidation and carburization at elevated temperatures. It is particularly useful for high-temperature equipment in the petrochemical industry because the alloy doesn't form the embrittling sigma phase after long time exposure at 1200°F (649°C). Excellent resistance to chloride stress-corrosion cracking is another important feature of alloy 800.  Alloy 800H is a solution heat treated (2100°F/1150°C), controlled- carbon version of alloy 800 with improved elevated temperature properties. It has improved creep and stress-rupture characteristics in the 1100°F (593°C) to 1800°F (982°C) temperature range.  Typical applications for alloy 800 and 800H are - Heat exchangers and process piping; carburizing fixtures and retorts; furnace components; electric range heating-element sheathing; extruded tubing for ethylene and steam methane reforming furnaces; ammonia effluent coolers. Incoloy 825 Alloy 825 is a nickel-iron-chromium-molybdenum alloy with good corrosion resistance to sulfuric and phosphoric acids and sea water. It is similar to alloy 800 but with improved resistance to aqueous corrosion. Although not fully resistant to stress-corrosion cracking in boiling magnesium chloride, alloy 825 has good resistance in neutral chloride media.  Typical applications are: phosphoric acid evaporators; pickling-tank heater, pickling hooks and equipment; chemical process equipment; tank trucks; propeller shafts, and spent nuclear fuel element recovery. Hastelloy C-22 Some of the area of present or potential use for alloy C-22 are: Acetic acid/Acetic Anhydride, cellophane manufacturing, chlorine spargers, chlorination systems, circuit board etching equipment, complex acid/chemical mixtures, fans and blowers, galvanizing line equipment, gas scrubber systems, geothermal wells, HF furnaces, incineration systems, nuclear fuel reprocessing, pesticide production, phosphoric acid applications, pickling system components, plate heat exchangers, selective leaching systems, sulfur oxide cooling towers, sulfonation systems, and tubular heat exchangers Hastelloy C276 Hastelloy C-276 is a nickel-molybdenum-chromium-tungsten alloy with excellent general corrosion resistance and good fabricability. The alloy should be considered for use in environments where resistance to hot contaminated mineral acids, organic and inorganic chloride-contaminated media, chlorine, formic and acetic acids, acetic , acetic anhydride, sea water and brine solutions is desired.  Hastelloy C-276 has resisted the formation of grain boundary precipitates in the weld heat-affected zone, making it a candidate for most chemical and petrochemical processing applications in the as- welded condition. The alloy has resisted both general and localized corrosion, including pitting, crevice corrosion, and stress corrosion cracking.  Hastelloy C-276 is readily fabricated by welding, using methods similar to those utilized for nickel-based alloys. Hastelloy X Hastelloy X is recommended especially for use in furnace applications because it has unusual resistance to oxidizing, reducing, and neutral atmospheres. Furnace rolls made of this alloy were still in good condition after operating for 8,700 hours at 2150 °F (1177°C).  Alloy X also has performed well in jet engine tailpipes, afterburner components, cabin heaters, and other aircraft parts. Haynes 25 Haynes 25 has given good service in many jet engine parts. Some of these include turbine blades, combustion chambers, afterburner parts, and turbine rings. The alloy has also been used successfully in a variety of industrial furnace applications including furnace muffles and liners in critical spots in high temperature kilns Haynes 188 Haynes 188 is a cobalt-based alloy which possesses a unique combination of properties. It has excellent high temperature strength and oxidation resistance to 2100°F (1150°C) combined with good post-aging ductility.  Alloy 188 has average room temperature tensile properties in the bright annealed condition of 137.2 ksi (946 MPa) ultimate strength, 67.3 ksi (464 MPa) yield strength and 53% elongation. At 1800°F (980°C) the alloy has ultimate and yield strengths of 35.2 ksi (243 MPa) and 19.0 ksi (131 MPa), respectively, with 59% elongation. Cryogenic temperatures do not significantly affect the ductility of alloy 188, but strength levels are increased markedly.  The excellent oxidation resistance of Haynes 188 results from minute additions of lanthanum, which modifies the protective oxide scale in such a manner that the oxide becomes extremely tenacious and retards diffusion when exposed to temperatures through 2100°F (1150°C).  Haynes 188 exhibits good ductility after prolonged exposure at temperatures of 1200, 1400, and 1600°F (650, 760 and 870°C) for 16,000 hours.  Because of its excellent strength, ductility and oxidation resistance, Haynes 188 meets the critical high-temperature material requirements for gas turbine applications as well as many of those in the airframe, chemical and nuclear fields. Typical uses are as transition ducts, combustor cans, spray bars, flame-holders and afterburner liners in jet engines. Haynes 230 Haynes 230 alloy is a nickel-chromium-tungsten-molybdenum alloy that combines excellent high temperature strength, outstanding resistance to oxidizing environments up to 2100°F (1149°C) for prolonged exposures, premier resistance to nitriding environments, and excellent long-term thermal stability. It is readily fabricated and formed, and is castable. Other attractive features include lower thermal expansion characteristics than most high-temperature alloys, and a pronounced resistance to grain coarsening with prolonged exposure to high-temperatures.  Haynes 230 alloy combines properties which make it ideally suited for a wide variety of component applications in the aerospace and power industries. It is used for combustion cans, transition ducts, flameholders, thermocouple sheaths, and other important gas turbine components. In the chemical process industry, 230 alloy is used for catalyst grid supports in ammonia burners, high-strength thermocouple protection tubes, high-temperature heat exchangers, ducts, high-temperature bellows, and various other key process internals.  In the industrial heating industry, applications for 230 alloy include furnace retorts, chains and fixtures, burner flame shrouds, recuperator internals, dampers, nitriding furnace internals, heat- treating baskets, grates, trays, sparger tubes, thermocouple protection tubes, cyclone internals, and many more Haynes 263 Haynes Alloy 263 is a age-hardenable Nickel/Cobalt/Chromium/Molybdenum alloy designed to have very good aged strength properties, with excellent fabrication characteristics when supplied in the annealed condition. The alloy is primarily used for applications up to 1650°F (900°C). This material is typically supplied in the annealed condition, and is aged by the customer as part of the fabrication process. Inconel 600 Alloy 600 is a nonmagnetic, nickel-based high temperature alloy possessing an excellent combination of high strength, hot and cold workability, and resistance to ordinary form of corrosion.  This alloy also displays good heat resistance and freedom from aging or stress corrosion throughout the annealed to heavily cold worked condition range.  Inconel 601 A nickel-chromium alloy with an addition of aluminum for outstanding resistance to oxidation and other forms of high temperature corrosion. It also has high mechanical properties at elevated temperatures.  Used for industrial furnaces; heat-treating equipment such as baskets, muffles, and retorts; petrochemical and other process equipment; and gas-turbine components. Inconel 617 Alloy 617 is a solid-solution, nickel-chromium-cobalt-molydenum alloy with an exceptional combination of high-temperature strength and oxidation resistance. The alloy also has excellent resistance to a wide range of corrosive environment, and it is readily formed and welded by conventional techniques.  The high nickel and chromium contents make the alloy resistant to a variety of both reducing and oxidizing media. The aluminum, in conjunction with the chromium, provides oxidation resistance at high temperatures. Solid-solution strengthening is imparted by the cobalt and molydenum.  The combination of high strength and oxidation resistance at temperatures over 1800°F makes alloy 617 an attractive material for such components as ducting, combustion cans, and transition liner in both aircraft, and land based gas turbines. Because of its resistance to high-temperature corrosion, the alloy is used for catalyst-grid supports in the production of nitric acid, for heat-treating baskets, and for reduction boats in the refining of molybdenum. Alloy 617 also offers attractive properties for components of power-generating plants, both fossil-fueled and nuclear Inconel 625 Alloy 625 is a nonmagnetic , corrosion - and oxidation-resistant, nickel-based alloy. Its outstanding strength and toughness in the temperature range cryogenic to 2000°F (1093°C) are derived primarily from the solid solution effects of the refractory metals, columbium and molybdenum, in a nickel- chromium matrix. The alloy has excellent fatigue strength and stress-corrosion cracking resistance to chloride ions. Some typical applications for alloy 625 have included heat shields, furnace hardware, gas turbine engine ducting, combustion liners and spray bars, chemical plant hardware, and special seawater applications. Inconel 718 Alloy 718 is a precipitation hardenable nickel-based alloy designed to display exceptionally high yield, tensile and creep-rupture properties at temperatures up to 1300°F. The sluggish age-hardening response of alloy 718 permits annealing and welding without spontaneous hardening during heating and cooling. This alloy has excellent weldability when compared to the nickel-base superalloys hardened by aluminum and titanium. This alloy has been used for jet engine and high-speed airframe parts such as wheels, buckets, spacers, and high temperature bolts and fasteners. Inconel X-750 Alloy X-750 is a precipitation-hardenable alloy which has been used in applications such as high temperature structural members for gas turbines, jet engine parts, nuclear power plant applications, heat-treating fixtures, forming tools, and extrusion dies. The alloy is highly resistant to chemical corrosion and oxidation and has high stress-rupture strength and low creep rates under high stresses at temperatures up to 1500°F (816°C) after suitable heat treatment. Multimet N-155 N-155 alloy has high temperature properties which are inherent and do not depend upon age hardening. It is recommended for applications involving high stresses at temperatures up to 1500°F, and can be used up to 2000°F where only moderate stresses are involved. It has good ductility, excellent oxidation resistance, and can be readily fabricated and machined.  N-155 is recommended for parts which must possess good strength and corrosion resistance up to 1500°F. It is used in numerous aircraft applications such as tail cones and tailpipes, exhaust manifolds, combustion chambers, afterburners, turbine blades and buckets, and bolts. Nickel 200 Carpenter Nickel 200 alloy is a commercially pure nickel that exhibits good corrosion resistance. It is ferromagnetic and has relatively low electrical resistivity. This combination of properties has allowed its use in a wide variety of applications.  Because the alloy displays good corrosion resistance, it has been used in food handling equipment, caustic solution, and general corrosion-resistant parts and structures. The magnetic and mechanical properties have enabled it to be used in devices requiring magnetic actuated parts. The excellent combination of properties enables Carpenter Nickel 200 alloy to be cold worked by forming and drawing. It is readily welded and will retain its properties at both subzero and elevated temperatures. Its low electrical resistivity has allowed its use as conducting leads and terminals in electrical and electronic components.  Because of its magnetostrictive properties (specially significant length change when magnetized), the nickels have been used in sonic devices such as sonar or for controls in ultrasonic welding. Carpenter Nickel 200 alloys meets the requirements of ASTM Specification B-160. Waspaloy Waspaloy is a precipitation hardening, nickel-based alloy which has been used in elevated temperature applications. The alloy has been used for gas turbine engine parts which require considerable strength and corrosion resistance at temperatures up to 1600°F (871°C). Waspaloy is usually vacuum-induction plus consumable electrode remelted.
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